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Le Monde du Sud// Elsie news

Le Monde du Sud// Elsie news

Haïti, les Caraïbes, l'Amérique Latine et le reste du monde. Histoire, politique, agriculture, arts et lettres.


Si même le "Crisis group" conseille au gouvernement de travailler avec la diaspora, peut-être que finalement on arrivera à quelque chose

Publié par Elsie HAAS sur 20 Décembre 2007, 14:43pm

Catégories : #ECONOMIE

Le rapport de "Crisis Group" mérite d'être lu attentivement. Je suppose que les auteurs ont écouté les Haïtiens de la diaspora et fait leurs recommandations à M. Préval à partir des donnés recueillies auprès de ces personnes.
La diaspora représente un enjeu formidablement intéressant, même primordial pour le développement d'Haïti. Première, deuxième, troisième générations, en France, aux Usa, au Canada, en Afrique, en Amérique Latine, ont acquis un savoir faire et, souvent, sont prêts à le  transmettre gratuitement-comme c'est le cas pour les retraités.
Evidemment tout le monde connaît le poids de cette diaspora dans l'équilibre budgétaire du pays. D'une certaine façon, c'est grâce à ses envois d'argent que les négociants spécialistes de l'importation se sont enrichis et ont construit cette espèce de monopole qui voudrait tout privatiser jusqu'à la personne du Président de la République (ce n'est pas une blague).
ici à Paris, ce constat nous l'avons fait en maintes fois. En dépit de l'inefficacité légendaire des différents ministères des Haïtiens vivant à l'Etranger, (c'est depuis le premier mandat de Préval   que des tentatives en vue d'inciter le gouvernement à collaborer avec la diaspora ont été lancées -en Guyane notamment où d'ailleurs le plus grand patron dans le BTP est d'origine haïtienne) nous avons tenté de nouer des contacts avec le nouveau ministre Jean Généus. Avec cette nouvelle équipe et compte tenu de la crise, le moment nous semblait opportun pour remettre cette question sur le tapis.
Nous avons donc remis au Ministre un dossier contenant  des propositions pour une nouvelle politique entre la diaspora et le pays, via son ministère (on ne voit pas d'ailleurs à quoi d'autre pourrait servir ce ministère,) qui rejoignent celles proposées, ici, par le "Crisis Group". C'est-à-dire la formation d'une sorte de Comité financé par l'Etat, qui serait en charge de l'étude des projets présentés par la diaspora: intérêt pour le pays, faisabilité financière, etc., de regrouper les projets parallèles, de sélectionner les projets par priorité, de les classer par domaines et d'établir une sorte de plan quinquennal de mise en route de ces projets. Il ya aurait des comités de ce type dans chacun des pays, et plusieurs sans doute aux USA où les Haïtiens sont en plus grand nombre.
En France, la priorité allait  aux projets tournés vers la création de petites entreprises d'énergies renouvelables  à partir de l'eau,  le soleil,  le vent.
On nous l'avait prédit et ça s'est passé tel quel :  les premiers contacts enthousiastes et prometteurs (une réunion préparée et réussie avec le ministre Jean Généus à Paris )  ont été suivis par le plus grand, lourd, complet, total  des silences. Comme si rien ne  s'était passé, comme si nous n'avions eu aucuns échanges, comme si même il n'existait pas de ministère des Haïtiens vivant à l'Etranger, comme si nos propres personnes n'avaient jamais existé non plus. Allez savoir dans quel fond de tiroir se trouve présentement ce dossier !
On nous avait dit aussi que le sérieux, l'intérêt d'un dossier prêchait presque contre lui pour des raisons extrêmement compliquées et complexes qui vont de l'héritage de Duvalier- un fonctionnaire ne doit pas trop en faire trop  sous peine d'être soupconné de guigner la place de son supérieur ou bien de montrer qu'il est plus compétent que celui-ci- jusqu'au fameux "Le blanc a dit que tu es mort, tu es mort" (ce qui signifie que tout ce que  dit "le Blanc " est vrai).
Donc voici que "le Blanc" en question, en la personne de "Crisis Group" fait des analysses similaires aux nôtres.
Pour le bien du pays, il faut mettre l'ego dans la poche, (exercice que je recommande chaudement aux personnes dont le but est sincèrement d'aider au développement du pays) se dire que si "le Blanc" est écouté et qu'il défend des idées qui nous semblent indispensables pour sortir le pays des tenailles des importateurs, et bien tant mieux !
L'important c'est que ce travail de coopération entre le gouvernement et la diaspora soit réellement mis en place, qu'il ne soit pas phagocyté  par les mêmes ONG bidon dont l'essentiel du budget passe en salaires, de manière à ce qu'il débouche à long terme sur des créations de PME (petites et moyennes entreprises)  et sur un développement d'un tourisme original.  Toutes choses faisables avec une vraie volonté politique. Il nous reste donc à espérer (on n'ira pas jusqu'à dire prier) que la voix du" Blanc" sera plus écoutée que la nôtre. Et que, et que...les "gran manjè" ne tombent pas là-dessus comme des maringouins sur une peau de bébé !

Port-au-Prince/Brussels, 14 December 2007
: To escape its “fragile state” status and consolidate the country’s stability, the Haitian government needs to implement a long-term diaspora policy with the support of the international community.

Peacebuilding in Haiti: Including Haitians from Abroad,* the latest report from the International Crisis Group, examines how a sustained initiative to include three million Haitians living abroad could foster development and investment, strengthen state institutions and modernise the country’s political system. The diaspora is waiting for the government to move beyond rhetoric to action by removing formal and informal barriers to expanded engagement. The government must also clearly communicate to the public and key sectors within Haiti the reasons for encouraging returns, so as to decrease the risks of tensions in an already fragile country.

The government should set up a diaspora task force, mandated for one year and comprising Haitian officials, all political forces in parliament, civil society, and private sector and diaspora representatives, to draft a ten-year diaspora strategy backed by international support.

“Haiti’s diaspora policy should target state-strengthening, development, investment, political participation and reverse brain drain”, says Damien Helly, Crisis Group’s Senior Analyst in Port-au-Prince. “If implemented half-heartedly, it may fail to contribute to a smooth transition after President René Préval leaves office in 2011”.

The success of urgently needed structural and economic reforms depends on increased public and private capacities, and several hundred positions in the public administration could potentially be filled by skilled Haitians from abroad. Haitian expatriates have contributed an estimated $1.65 billion to the economy in remittances in 2006, and their economic contributions should be reflected in the political system by facilitating voting abroad, and allowing dual citizenship and diaspora representation in parliament, which is likely to require constitutional reform.

Remittances could be maximised through better access to credit, finance and savings. Other resources should be leveraged through hometown associations and Haitian lobbies in developed countries. Greater confidence in Haiti’s institutions will allow diaspora communities to invest more in Haiti. Some regulation of work force migration should be put in place through bilateral agreements negotiated with destination countries.

“The government has just over three years to implement an ambitious and long-term diaspora policy that will extend beyond Préval’s mandate and help Haiti achieve development and stability”, says Markus Schultze-Kraft, Crisis Group’s Latin America Program Director. “If this opportunity is not seized now, it may not present itself again in the foreseeable future”.


Contacts: Andrew Stroehlein (Brussels) +32 (0) 2 541 1635
Giulia Previti (Washington) +1 202 785 1601

To contact Crisis Group media please click here
*Read the full Crisis Group report on our website: http://www.crisisgroup.org


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS

The UN mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) will not stay forever and, in any case, cannot be made responsible for solving Haiti’s manifold and deep-seated problems. The absence of adequate professional staff, sufficient financial resources and efficient management at all levels of government has delayed structural reforms and economic and social programs. The country needs institutional strengthening prior to its transition from President René Préval to his successor after the elections in 2011 – also the likely outside limit for MINUSTAH’s mandate. Otherwise, political polarisation along traditional cleavages will reappear, as will the risk of conflict. Training civil servants and increasing their salaries are important but insufficient to produce the advances Haitians are demanding. A serious and sustained initiative to include three million Haitians living abroad could overcome historic nationalistic mistrust of outsiders, bring a missing middle class within reach and help Haiti escape its “fragile state” status.

Most Haitians abroad live in the U.S. and Canada. Their remittances to family in Haiti reached an estimated $1.65 billion in 2006 and now account for 35 per cent of gross domestic product (GDP). This direct subsidy to family incomes should not lessen the state’s willingness to develop sustainable financing for basic public services. Instead, its impact should be maximised through better access to credit and finance, and greater remittances literacy. Savings and other resources should also be leveraged through incentives programs, hometown associations (HTAs), professional organisations and diaspora investment funds. The Haitian government should facilitate greater coordination and partnerships to redirect some funds to local, departmental and national development initiatives.

Members of the diaspora are Haiti’s first customers and investors in tourism, small business and mining but they prefer to conduct business informally, waiting for more security, greater confidence in the government and an improved investment climate. At the same time, they are becoming aware of their potential power as lobbies in their host countries and as transnational networks and actors in Haitian politics. Their economic contribution should be reflected in the political system by allowing dual citizenship and diaspora representation in parliament. These changes will require, after broad consultations and negotiations, at least constitutional amendment and possibly a new constitution before the 2011 elections. Measures to facilitate voting in Haitian consulates are also needed.

The diaspora is ready to help but it needs government assistance to remove formal and informal barriers to expanded engagement. A reverse brain drain would bring several hundred skilled and professional expatriates back and greatly expand the nation’s management capacity. Yet to realise those benefits the government must clearly communicate to key sectors and the public the reasons for encouraging returns. President Préval should personally launch a ten-year diaspora policy with full international support. A plan designed in collaboration with the diaspora, parliament and civil society that targets specific objectives and transparently addresses the downside risks of expanded diaspora involvement will help pave the way for a smooth transition at the end of his term.

RECOMMENDATIONS

To President Préval and the Government of Haiti:

1.  Set up a one-year mandated commission comprising Haitians from abroad, parliamentarians, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and the business sector, with a sufficient budget to organise three diaspora-wide consultative workshops to debate and design a ten-year diaspora policy and assess potential risks of the reforms proposed.

2.  Consult with political forces countrywide and parliament on the quickest ways of achieving constitutional and other reforms that will include the diaspora in the 2011 presidential election process by allowing dual citizenship, permitting diaspora representation in parliament and facilitating voting abroad.

3.  Increase the high-level staff and budget of the Ministry of Haitians Living Abroad (MHLA) to better reflect the diaspora’s economic weight and open half these new positions to well-qualified Haitians from abroad.

4.  Pursue large-scale recruitment programs in public administration, equally open to well-qualified Haitians inside and outside the country, to promote transfer of knowledge by immediately bringing several hundred Haitians from abroad for periods of up to ten years, perhaps starting with one- to three-year commitments, coupled with sound communication and compensatory policies to avoid tensions inside state institutions.

5.  Maximise use of remittances through better access to financial services and credit and finance literacy programs, and intensify efforts to improve the investment climate in terms of infrastructure, property protection and economic security.

6.  Set up a diaspora development fund together with hometown associations (HTAs) and international donors and coordinated with the Local Government Management and Development Fund (FGDCT, Fonds des Gestion et de Développement des Collectivités Territoriales).

7.  Set up an interministerial task force to prepare a law on labour force migration and negotiate bilateral agreements to better control migrations flows with countries hosting the largest Haitian populations.

8.  Publish regular electronic and radio security bulletins with accurate statistical crime data for Port-au-Prince and the regions directed at Haitians abroad seeking up-to-date information on security risks.

To the Haitian Parliament:

9.  Debate and build parliamentary consensus regarding a long-term diaspora policy and the need for constitutional reform, a law on labour migration and an increased budget for the MHLA.

10.  Consider constitutional amendments or other constitutional reform procedures to allow dual citizenship and diaspora representation in the parliament, as well as other measures to facilitate voting abroad.

To the International Community, including the U.S., Canada, the European Union (EU), International Financial Institutions and Other Major Donors:

11.  Establish diaspora liaison centres and criteria favouring the employment of Haitian expatriates in foreign aid programs and develop public administration staffing programs in coordination with the Haitian government.

12.  Support diaspora networks and NGOs operating in their territories and in Haiti by helping them plan, finance and implement development and investment projects in Haiti in coordination with the MHLA and other relevant public and private entities.

13.  Support a Haitian diaspora development fund designed to finance local development projects.

To the Haitian Diaspora, Hometown Associations (HTAs) and Transnational Networks:

14.  Pressure the Haitian government on voting abroad, dual nationality and representation in the parliament, as part of constitutional and other reform.

15.  In the U.S. and Canada, encourage the development of a Haitian “community” lobby to create stronger political cohesion within the diaspora and promote better understanding of Haiti’s challenges among policy-makers in those countries to increase their engagement in Haiti.

To the Organization of American States (OAS), the International Organization for Migration (IOM), and the Governments of the Dominican Republic and Haiti:

16.  Revitalise the functioning of the bilateral commission with, if needed, more assertive mediation from the OAS or the IOM, to manage migration issues between Haiti and the Dominican Republic.

Port-au-Prince/Brussels, 14 December 2007

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